Migrantes de rutina

Al menos 5.8 millones de mexiquenses de los municipios ubicados al norte del Distrito Federal se trasladan diariamente a sus lugares de trabajo en la capital. ¿Qué peligros enfrentan en sus viajes?

http://www.lahojadearena.com/revista/2013/12/migrantes-de-rutina/

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El mapeo de trayectorias / nuevas comunidades

les dejo esta liga a un experimento interesante http://lust.nl/#projects-5297

LUST is a multidisciplinary graphic design practice established in 1996 by Jeroen Barendse, Thomas Castro, and Dimitri Nieuwenhuizen, based in The Hague, Netherlands. LUST works in a broad spectrum of media including traditional printwork and book design, abstract cartography and data-visualisations, new media and interactive installations, and architectural graphics. Moreover, LUST is deeply interested in exploring new pathways for design at the cutting edge where new media and information technologies, architecture and urban systems and graphic design overlap.

This fascination led to establishing LUSTlab in the summer of 2010. LUSTlab is more than a new form of Research & Development. LUSTlab goes further than observing, inventing and producing, by means of forming a platform where knowledge, issues and ideologies can be shared.

LUSTlab researches, generates hypotheses and makes unstable media stable again. The future of digital media lies in the design of its use. Humanizing the unhuman, bringing the internet down to earth and finding the missing link between the digital and the physical. The outcomes vary from (strategic) visions to new communication tools, man-machine installations and physical products using digital content.

Cover for the 2/2013 issue of Dutch magazine Stedenbouw + Ruimtelijke Ordening. The theme of the issue is New Towns, also called planned communities. 

The visualization shows the routes of people passing through the New Towns throughout their day. The lines that connect the cities contain the text of the tweets, and the color of the letters represents the time of the day when the tweet was posted.

The policy for the former growing centers has constantly been accompanied by discussions about what their suburbs actually are. The new cities are in fact originated in the tension between urbanity and sub-urbanity. The dominant discourse is that they are not urban enough. There has been much criticism of their lack of urban amenities, identity and historical and spatial layering. Another, more recent discourse is about decay: a gradual process of decline has be observed in the new towns. But despite their bad reputation with outsiders, most residents of the New Towns seem to be satisfied, as suggested by a number of urban sociological studies in Zoetermeer, Nieuwegein and Almere.

Geolocalized tweets constitute a good data pool to look at. From about half million of tweets spanning the period of a week, we filtered out only those by users that are related to one or more Dutch New Towns. In this way, the conversations of people related to these towns create a typographic cloud shaped like the country. Cover typography by Max Kisman.

✳UrbanSensing (in progress)
 
Final illustration
 
Final illustration. Detail
 
Final illustration. Detail
 
Final illustration. Detail
 
Final illustration. Detail
 
All week

From the single visualizations, some patterns are visible. For instance, in the weekend there’s a higher presence of green lines, due to people’s increased activity on Friday and Saturday night. On the other hand, monday barely has any green lines; blue is dominant instead, denoting people’s activity while going to work around 7-9 AM.

Sunday
 
Monday
 
Monday. Detail
 
Cover of the New Towns issue
 
Typography test
 

Cover for the 2/2013 issue of Dutch magazine Stedenbouw + Ruimtelijke Ordening. The theme of the issue is New Towns, also called planned communities. 

The visualization shows the routes of people passing through the New Towns throughout their day. The lines that connect the cities contain the text of the tweets, and the color of the letters represents the time of the day when the tweet was posted.

The policy for the former growing centers has constantly been accompanied by discussions about what their suburbs actually are. The new cities are in fact originated in the tension between urbanity and sub-urbanity. The dominant discourse is that they are not urban enough. There has been much criticism of their lack of urban amenities, identity and historical and spatial layering. Another, more recent discourse is about decay: a gradual process of decline has be observed in the new towns. But despite their bad reputation with outsiders, most residents of the New Towns seem to be satisfied, as suggested by a number of urban sociological studies in Zoetermeer, Nieuwegein and Almere.

Geolocalized tweets constitute a good data pool to look at. From about half million of tweets spanning the period of a week, we filtered out only those by users that are related to one or more Dutch New Towns. In this way, the conversations of people related to these towns create a typographic cloud shaped like the country. Cover typography by Max Kisman.

✳UrbanSensing (in progress)
 
 
Posterwall 2.0
 
 
Megastructure Schiphol
 
 
Women’s Political Rights Around the World
 
 
Res Sapiens: Lamp001/14—001/15
 
 
Mooove
 
 
MoMa: Tokyo 1955–1970 exhibition
 
 
Making City Istanbul
 
 
60 Years Madurodam-stamp
 
 

 
 
 
 

Habitar los territorios de la espera, una nueva dimensión de la geografía social

Hola a Todo/as
Aquí les dejo información de un seminario bastante interesante (se transmitirá vía la web)
Lunes 7 de Octubre de 2013
11:00 hrs. – finaliza a las 13:00 hrs. (tiempo del pacífico)
Organiza: Doctorado en Ciencias Sociales con especialidad en Estudios Regionales / Sede: Tijuana
Alain Musset es doctor en geografía por la Escuela de Altos estudios en Ciencias Sociales de París. Es profesor en la misma escuela y director del máster Estudios comparativos del desarrollo y la formación doctoral territorios, sociedades, desarrollo.
http://www.colef.mx/?evento=habitar-los-territorios-de-la-espera-una-nueva-dimension-de-la-geografia-social&lang=es

Los mapas transforman la manera como nos relacionamos con el mundo

Justo me encontré con este artículo de la BBC que refuerza lo que discutimos en la sesión del seminario de hoy.
 

The maps transforming how we interact with the world

12 September 2013 Last updated at 23:35 GMT
By Matthew WallBusiness reporter, BBC News

 

Woman wearing 3D glasses interacting with map
An Ordnance Survey staff member interrogates 3D aerial mapping data

The modern map is no longer an unwieldy printed publication we wrestle with on some blustery peak, but digital, data-rich, and dynamic.

It is transforming the way we interact with the world around us.

Thanks to “big data”, satellite navigation, GPS-enabled smartphones, social networking and 3D visualisation technology, maps are becoming almost unlimited in their functionality, and capable of incorporating real-time updates.

“Advanced LED screen technology and smartphones equipped with projectors are going to transform the way we interact with maps,” says Ian White, founder and chief executive of Urbanmapping.com, a San Francisco-based geoservices provider.

“For example, tourists will be able to plan their visits by using their phones to project a 3D map onto a wall, that they’ll then be able to manipulate it remotely with their hands, adding layers of information such as landmarks, restaurants, recommendations from friends, as well as transport links and times.”

“Soon we may not even be visualising maps. They may be talking to us”

John GoodwinPrincipal scientist, Ordnance Survey

If you think this sounds like something Tony Stark, aka Iron Man, might have invented, this video from SpaceX, PayPal and Tesla Motors founder Elon Musk shows just how close we are to achieving fully-immersive 3D interactions.
“Soon we may not even be visualising maps,” says John Goodwin, principal scientist at Ordnance Survey (OS), the government’s independent mapping agency.

“They may be talking to us. Words are sometimes better than pictures, particularly if you don’t want to keep stopping to look at your smartphone.”

As digital maps can now be linked to an almost infinite number of data sets, he argues, they are going to become more personalised.
“Anglers or cyclists, say, will be able to add whatever information is relevant to them.” he says.

 

Social maps

Not only does geo-location help us know where we are and what there is of interest around us, it can show us where everyone else is too, and what they think is useful and interesting. Maps are becoming social.

Israeli company Waze, bought by Google in June, is incorporating live updates from its community of users to give commuters tips on how to avoid snarl-ups and roadworks. The static 2D map has become 4D – updating itself in real time.

Waze 'zombie' icon
Waze members tell other drivers their mood when driving and 'zombie' is proving very popular

As you drive, your GPS-enabled smartphone shows you all the other Waze drivers in your vicinity.

You receive real-time alerts from fellow drivers, and hopefully enjoy a less frustrating journey as a result.

In my area of Greenwich, Waze tells me over 1,500 drivers drove 105,000 miles, posted and shared 528 road alerts, and made 19 map improvements in the last week alone.

Other geo-location apps, such as FourSquare, Tinder and Here On Biz, all incorporate mapping of some kind.

Of course, crowdsourcing data works better the more people take part, and the data often cannot be independently verified, but such services can improve the accuracy of maps to the benefit of all.

Research consultancy Oxera says more than one billion hours of travel time and 3.5 billion litres of fuel are saved globally each year due to improved navigation, while the advantages of more accurate, dynamically-updated maps for national emergency services are obvious.

Ordnance Survey uses 3D aerial imagery, coupled with laser technology that can measure the heights of buildings and landscape topography, to create highly-precise 3D models of cities and towns.

Its core digital mapping database contains over 460 million geographic features and usually receives 10,000 updates every day.

But some think there is still room for improvement.

‘Swan dust pillow’

Chris Sheldrick
Chris Sheldrick, founder of What3Words.com, has mapped his precise position on Hampstead Heath using three randomly generated words

For example, Chris Sheldrick’s start-up company What3Words.com has divided up the globe into 57 trillion 3m by 3m squares, each identified by a unique combination of three randomly generated words.

“When I was in the music event business I kept telling people where a gig was but a number of people would always get lost”, he says. “The postcode system just wasn’t accurate enough, particularly in rural areas.”

His system bridges the gap between postcodes and accurate-but-complicated GPS co-ordinates, he argues. Users can also buy a single word to represent the precise location, making addresses even simpler to remember, he says.

What3Words’ platform is being used by Australian emergency services, says Mr Sheldrick, and he envisages great potential in the rural expanses of Africa and the Middle East, where street addresses often don’t exist.

‘Junk data’

 
Jet plane over houses
Urban Mapping's software is helping to map noise pollution from low-flying passenger jets

The global geoservices market is worth between £98 billion and £177 billion a year, according to Oxera, making it about four times the size of the video game industry. About 90% of OS’s business is now digital, even though it still sells 2.5 million paper maps a year.

Better maps mean better business.

“Suppose you’re a restaurant chain that wants to know where they should build next”, says Urban Mapping’s Ian White.

“They may want to target a certain demographic, income profile, population density and visualise this on a map showing transport links and how many people could reach this destination in a given time.

“We can do this and help businesses make better decisions.”

Mappa Mundi
Static 2D maps, like this 12th century 'Mappa Mundi' have evolved into 4D dynamic digital maps

He foresees a time when commercial quadcopter drones equipped with cameras and a host of sensors will be able to map buildings’ CO2 output almost in real time.

This could, for example, enable authorities to tax companies very precisely according to the size of their carbon footprint.

But the explosion of digital information – 90% of the data in the world today has been created in the last two years, says the Bartlett Centre for Advanced Spatial Analysis at University College London – presents its own challenges.

“Big data offers multiple possibilities”, says Mr White. “But the dirty secret no-one talks about is that a lot of this data is junk. Governments are rushing to put data online without checking the accuracy of that data.”

It all needs to be “curated”, he argues.

While the proliferation of data and new interaction technologies are making maps richer, more dynamic and immersive, there is still one underlying theme that unites all maps throughout history: location.

We will always need to know where we are in the world.

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La proyección de Peters para una mayor equidad social.

El vídeo que dejo arriba se une a la crítica, comentarios y argumentos desarrollados en la lectura de “Corner the Agency of Mapping” de Denis Cosgrove. En el texto, la cartografía y el mapeo han cobrado importancia, no sólo por su carácter exploratorio sino por su aportación como herramienta visual para explicar fenómenos sociales y desde una perspectiva territorial. La principal idea que motivó mi curiosidad sobre el tema fue la conclusión que:

“Aunque los mapas son producto de observaciones medidas o dibujadas, estas no son ni descripciones ni representaciones sino construcciones mentales; ideas que permitirán cierto efecto de cambio.” (Crosgrove, 1999)

Así, la mayoría del producto cartográfico generado en la historia, ha sido elaborado por ciertas razones, intereses y para ciertos propósitos. Las proyecciones geográficas son tan sólo una parte de la cartografía y un buen ejemplo, ya que dependiendo del fenómeno estudiado, de la unidad espacial de análisis o de su capacidad de representación; cada Cartógrafo o Investigador utiliza cierta proyección geográfica (Mercator es la más común).

Me interesa conocer el impacto que históricamente ha tenido la proyección geográfica Mercator. Esta se realizó para efecto de navegación y se contextualiza en el siglo XVIII, en una etapa de consolidación de Occidente y la conformación de imperios. Al respecto de mapas con este tipo de proyección (visto con mayor frecuencia en Mapa mundi), el tamaño del continente Europeo es mayor que el territorio de Sudamérica, los continentes de la Antartida y Artica no se muestran y Alaska es tres veces más grande que México (en imagen). Entonces las proporciones del territorio mundial se han configurado y esto ha sido aceptado, desconocido o pasado por alto históricamente por la sociedad, cartógrafos y los mismos geógrafos.

Una proyección geográfica que rompió con la forma de observar el mundo fue la del Dr. Arno Peters; mejor conocida como la proyección de Peters, este tipo de proyección con áreas iguales, tenía la intención de conocer al mundo con las proporciones equitativas y con mayor aproximación a la realidad geográfica. Los mapas realizados con esta proyección muestran al norte como un territorio proporcional al de su área; de ahí la molestia de geógrafos, cartógrafos, políticos, sociólogos y una variedad de disciplinas cuya perspectiva cambia repentinamente por una proyección distinta a la convencional. Con la proyección de Peters, México se ve ahora más grande que Alaska y África tiene mayor área que Groenlandia. En síntesis el Dr.  Peters creía que:

“El uso generalizado de los mapas de Mercator para propósitos que no tenían nada que ver con la navegación han construido en nuestra mente una imagen del mundo gravemente distorsionada.” (ODT)

Proyección Peters

En el capítulo 16 de la segunda temporada de la serie “The West Wing”, la Organización de los Cartógrafos de la Igualdad Social (fue un grupo de cartógrafos) estaban a favor de la aprobación de un mapa de proyección invertida Peters como obligatorio para toda la educación en los Estados Unidos. Ellos creían firmemente que los mapas tradicionales Mercator dieron atención excesiva a las naciones y los pueblos del hemisferio norte. Este grupo de cartógrafos; actualmente en existencia, pretendían aumentar la percepción de equidad de los países de continentes ubicados en el hemisferio sur a partir de la repartición de mapas y un cambio en la enseñanza. Definitivamente un argumento más que reflexionar acerca del mapeo y la cartografía que sólo abarca un aspecto, la proyección geográfica en los mapas.

Peters Invertido